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HSK level 4: 448 word(s) found.


àn(legal) case; incident; record; file; table
āoa depression; indentation; concave; hollow
ǎocoat; jacket; short and lined coat or robe
eight (banker's anti-fraud numeral); split
bāito break with both hands
bàito pay respect; worship; visit; salute
bānto pull; to draw out; to turn
bānspot; colored patch; stripe; spotted; striped; variegated
bǎna register; block of printing; edition; version; page
bànpartner; companion; comrade; associate; to accompany
bànto disguise oneself; to dress up; adorn
bànto mix; to mix in; to toss (a salad)
bàoto explode or burst; to quick fry or quick boil
bēngto stretch; taut; to tie; to bind
bèngto jump; to bounce; to hop
that; those; (one) another
money; coins; currency; silk
biāothe topmost branches of a tree; surface; sign; to mark; (outward) sign; indication; prize; award; bid
biēto choke; to stifle; to restrain; to hold back; to hold in (urine); to hold (one's breath)
to divine; to forecast or estimate; (of a place to live etc) to choose; surname Bu
wharf; port; pier
cáito cut out (as a dress); to cut; to trim; to reduce; to diminish; to cut back (e.g. on staff); decision; judgment
cáimoney; wealth; riches; property; valuables
cāneat; meal
cánto destroy; to spoil; to ruin; to injure; cruel; oppressive; savage; brutal; incomplete; disabled; to remain; to survive; remnant; surplus
cāoto grasp; to hold; to operate; to manage; to control; to steer; to exercise; to drill (practice); to play; to speak (a language)
cáotrough; manger; groove; channel
cèngto rub against; to walk slowly; to freeload (colloquial)
chāfork; pitchfork; prong; pick; cross; intersect; "X"
chàfork in road; bifurcation; branch in road, river, mountain range etc; to branch off; to turn off; to diverge; to stray (from the path); to change the subject; to interrupt; to stagger (times)
chānto mix
chānto assist by the arm; to mix; to support; to sustain
chánto wind around; to wrap round; to coil; tangle; to involve; to bother; to annoy
chángluttonous; greedy
chǎnto give birth; to reproduce; to produce; product; resource; estate; property
chànto tremble; to shiver; to shake; to vibrate; Taiwan pr. [zhan4]
chángto repay; to compensate for; to recompense; to fulfill (hopes etc)
chéngto assume (a form); to submit; to petition; to show; to present; to offer
chéngto punish; to reprimand; to warn
chèngsteelyard; Roman balance; CL:
chúa hoe; to hoe or dig; to weed; get rid of
chùto touch; to make contact with sth; to stir up sb's emotions
chuāngsore; skin ulcer
chuíbeat with the fist; to hammer; to cudgel
chuíhammer; to hammer into shape; weight (e.g. of a steelyard or balance)
chǔnblunt; stupid; to wiggle (of worms); sluggish
refined language; wording; poetic genre (so far, interchangeable with ); to take leave; to resign; to dismiss; to decline
female; Taiwan pr. [ci1]
cōngscallion; green onion
urgent; hurried; to urge; to promote; to urge haste; close; intimate
cuìbrittle; fragile; crisp; crunchy; clear and loud voice; neat
dàito lend on interest; to borrow; a loan; leniency; to make excuses; to pardon; to forgive
dānred; pellet; powder; cinnabar
dàncrossball; bullet; shot; shell; ball
dànnitrogen (chemistry)
dàngto wash; to squander; to sweep away; to move; to shake; dissolute; pond
dǎopound; beat; hull; attack; disturb; stir
dàoto steal; to rob; to plunder; thief; bandit; robber
enemy; match
diānto weigh in the hand; to estimate
殿diànpalace hall
diāoartful; wicked; surname Diao
diāoto hold in the mouth
dìngnail; sew on
dòngclassifier for houses or buildings; ridgepole (old)
dōupocket; bag; to wrap up or hold in a bag; to move in a circle; to canvas or solicit; to take responsibility for; to disclose in detail; combat armor (old)
alone; independent; single; sole; only
to bet; to gamble
-plated; to plate
duòto stamp one's feet
éerror; exhort; false
éforehead; horizontal tablet or inscribed board; specified number or amount
èabbr. for Hubei 湖北 province in central China; surname E
ēnfavor; grace; kindness
èrtwo (banker's anti-fraud numeral); to betray
to cut down; to fell; to dispatch an expedition against; to attack; to boast
law; method; way; Buddhist teaching; Legalist; France; French; abbr. for 法国
fānsail; Taiwan pr. , except 帆布 canvas
fáncomplicated; many; in great numbers; abbr. for 繁体, traditional form of Chinese characters
fànto float; to be suffused with; general; extensive; non-specific; flood; pan- (prefix)
fēngbee; wasp
fèngseam; crack; narrow slit
fǒuto negate; to deny; not
to lean over; to fall (go down); to hide (in ambush); to conceal oneself; to lie low; hottest days of summer; to submit; to concede defeat; to overcome; to subdue; volt; surname Fu
good fortune; happiness; luck; surname Fu; abbr. for Fujian province 福建省
to repeat; to double; to overlap; complex (not simple); compound; composite; double; diplo-; duplicate; overlapping; to duplicate; to go and return; to return; to resume; to return to a normal or original state; again; to recover; to restore; to turn over; to reply; to answer; to reply to a letter; to retaliate; to carry out
abdomen; stomach; belly
to go; to visit (e.g. another country); to attend (a banquet etc)
gàicalcium (chemistry)
gǎnto feel; to move; to touch; to affect
gǎnstalks of grain
gānghead rope of a fishing net; guiding principle; key link; class (taxonomy); outline; program
square; frame; rule; (legal) case; style; character; standard; pattern; (classical) to obstruct; to hinder; (classical) to arrive; to come; (classical) to investigate; to study exhaustively
gēngto plow; to till
gěngbranch; stem; stalk; CL:; to block; to hinder
gōngmeritorious deed or service; achievement; result; service; accomplishment; work (physics)
gōngwork; worker; skill; profession; trade; craft; labor
gǒngto cup one's hands in salute; to surround; to arch; arched
gǒngmercury (chemistry)
gōuto attract; to arouse; to tick; to strike out; to delineate; to collude; variant of , hook
bone; Taiwan pr. [gu1]
happening; instance; reason; cause; intentional; former; old; therefore; hence; (of people) to die, dead
guīsilicon (chemistry)
guītortoise; turtle
háncold; poor; to tremble
what; how; why; which; carry; surname He
hèngharsh and unreasonable; perverse; unexpected
hōngto bake; to heat by fire; to set off by contrast
hǒngto deceive; to coax; to amuse (a child)
hòngtumult; uproar; commotion; disturbance
congee; making a living; muddled; paste; scorched
beard; mustache; whiskers; non-Han people, esp. from central Asia; reckless; outrageous; what?; why?; to complete a winning hand at mahjong (also written ); surname Hu
huǎnslow; unhurried; sluggish; gradual; not tense; relaxed; to postpone; to defer; to stall; to stave off; to revive; to recuperate
huìto draw; to paint
huōopening; stake all; sacrifice; crack; slit
huòdisaster; misfortune; calamity
to hit; to strike; to break; Taiwan pr. [ji2]
to arouse; to incite; to excite; to stimulate; sharp; fierce; violent
to amass; to accumulate; to store; measured quantity (such as area of volume); product (the result of multiplication); to integrate (math.); to solve (or integrate) an ordinary differential equation (math.); old; long-standing
to be jealous of; fear; dread; scruple; to avoid or abstain from; to quit; to give up sth
to continue; to follow after; to go on with; to succeed; to inherit; then; afterwards
jiàto harness; to draw (a cart etc); to drive; to pilot; to sail; to ride; your good self; prefixed word denoting respect (polite 敬辞); surname Jia
jiānto fornicate; to defile; adultery; rape; wicked; crafty; traito
jiǎncocoon; callus
jiāngginger; surname Jiang
jiǎngoar; paddle
jiāolovable; pampered; tender; delicate; frail
jiāoto glue; glue; gum; rubber
jiáoto chew
jiǎoto twist (strands into a thread); to entangle; to wring; to hang (by the neck); to turn; to wind; classifier for skeins of yarn
jiǎoto hand in; to hand over; to seize
jiēall; each and every; in all cases
jiéto rob; to plunder; to seize by force; to coerce; calamity; abbr. for kalpa 劫波
jièboundary; scope; extent; circles; group; kingdom (taxonomy)
jīnmuscle; tendon
jìnto prohibit; to forbid
jīngstalk; stem; CL:
jǐngbright; circumstance; scenery; surname Jing
jìngto respect; to venerate; to salute; to offer
jiǔblack jade; nine (banker's anti-fraud numeral)
to reside; to be (in a certain position); to store up; to be at a standstill; residence; house; restaurant; classifier for bedrooms; surname Ju
tool; device; utensil; equipment; instrument; talent; ability; to possess; to have; to provide; to furnish; to state; classifier for devices, coffins, dead bodies
to resist; to repel; to refuse
a saw; to cut with a saw
juānto contribute; to donate; contribution; tax; to abandon
juànpen (pig); a fold
jūnmonarch; lord; gentleman; ruler
jūngerm; bacteria
jùnsmart; eminent; handsome; talented
to stop; to block; card; CL:,; calorie
kàngkang (a heatable brick bed)
to tap; knock
kěnto gnaw; to nibble; to bite
kōuto dig out; to pick out (with one's fingers); to carve; to cut; to study meticulously; to lift one's clothes; stingy; miserly
warehouse; storehouse
kuàto carry (esp. slung over the arm, shoulder or side)
kuàngframe (e.g. door frame); casing; fig. framework; template; to circle (i.e. draw a circle around sth); to frame; to restrict; Taiwan pr. [kuang1]
kuīdeficiency; deficit; luckily
làito depend on; to hang on in a place; bad; to renege (on promise); to disclaim; to rat (on debts); rascally; to blame; to put the blame on; surname Lai
lēito choke; to throttle; to strangle
lěirampart; base (in baseball)
léngcorner; edge; arris (sharp ridge formed by two surfaces meeting at an edge); protrusion; square bea
liánhanging screen or curtain; flag used as a shop sig
liánto ally; to unite; to join
liànto feel attached to; to long for; to love
liángbeam of roof; bridge; name of Kingdoms and Dynasties at different periods; surname Liang
liánggood; very; very much
liàngto dry in the air
línphosphorus (chemistry); water in rocks
línneighbor; adjacent; close to
língquick; alert; efficacious; effective; spirit; departed soul; coffin
lǐngmountain range; mountain ridge
liùsix (banker's anti-fraud numeral)
trip; travel; to travel
rate; frequency
lūnwhirl (one's arm)
generic name for hemp, flax etc; hemp or flax fiber for textile materials; sesame; CL:[lu:3]; (of materials) rough or coarse; pocked; pitted; to have pins and needles or tingling; to feel numb; surname Ma
méiclassifier for coins, rings, badges, pearls, sporting medals, rockets, satellites etc; tree trunk; whip; wooden peg, used as a gag for marching soldiers(old)
méibacteria; fungi; moldy
měimagnesium (chemistry)
miángeneric term for cotton or kapok; cotton; padded or quilted with cotton
miǎnto excuse sb; to exempt; to remove or dismiss from office; to avoid; to avert; to escape; to be prohibited
miáodepict; to trace (a drawing); to copy; to touch up
membrane; film
do not; there is none who; surname Mo
móuto plan; seek; scheme
eye; item; section; list; catalogue; table of contents; order (taxonomy); goal; name; title
nǎito be; thus; so; therefore; then; only; thereupon
nàndisaster; distress; to scold
to plan to; to draft (a plan); to imitate; to assess; to compare; pseudo-
niǎntwirl (in the fingers)
niǎnto expel; to oust
niàngto ferment; to brew; to make honey (of bees); to lead to; to form gradually; wine; stuffed vegetables (cooking method)
尿niàoto urinate; urine; CL:
nuóto shift; to move
to rake up; to steal; to braise; to crawl
páoto eliminate; to dig; to question
to hack; to chop; to split open; (of lightning) to strike
blank (eg for a coin); unburnt earthenware; semifinished product
fart; flatulence; nonsense
piāoto float; to drift
piēto cast away; to fling aside
piēblink; glance; to appear in a flash
pínpoor; inadequate; deficient; garrulous
pǐnarticle; commodity; product; goods; kind; grade; rank; character; disposition; nature; temperament; variety; to taste sth; to sample; to criticize; to comment; to judge; to size up
pìnto engage (teacher); to hire; employment; hiring; to betroth; betrothed; to get married (of woman)
rather; quite; considerably (Taiwan pr. [po3]); oblique; inclined; slanting; surname Po
chart; list; score (music); spectrum (physics)
seven (banker's anti-fraud numeral)
to steep (tea)
device; tool; utensil; CL:
steam; vapor
to build by laying bricks or stones
qiāto pick (flowers); to pinch; to clutch; (slang) to fight
qiānto move; to shift; to change (a position or location etc); to promote
qiànto inlay; to embed
qiāngcavity of body; barrel (e.g. engine cylinder); compartment; tune; accent of speech
qiāoshovel; spade
qíndiligent; industrious; hardworking; frequent; regular; constant
qíngeneric term for birds and animals; birds; to capture (old)
qīnghydrogen (chemistry)
quánauthority; power; right; temporary
quánspring (small stream); mouth of a spring; coin (archaic)
quànbond (esp. document split in two, with each party holding one half); contract; deed (i.e. title deeds); ticket; voucher; certificate
ránto burn; to ignite; to light; fig. to spark off (hopes); to start (debate); to raise (hopes)
róngto dissolve; soluble
róngto smelt; to fuse
róngvelvet; woolen
breast; milk
sāicheek (esp. lower cheek); jaw; gills (of fish)
sānthree (banker's anti-fraud numeral)
shāgranule; hoarse; raspy; sand; powder; CL:; abbr. for Tsar or Tsarist Russia; surname Sha
shāsand; gravel; granule
shàtall building; mansion; rear annex; lean-to; also pr. [xia4]
shāito filter; to sift; to sieve
shǎnabbr. for Shaanxi 陕西 province
shàngood (virtuous); benevolent; well-disposed; good at sth; to improve or perfect
shāngcommerce; to consult; quotient; 2nd note in pentatonic scale; the Shang dynasty, 16th to 11th century BC
shǎngto bestow (a reward); to give (to an inferior); to hand down; a reward (bestowed by a superior); to appreciate (beauty)
shàngstill; yet; to value; to esteem; surname Shang
shāoto bring sth to sb; to deliver
shāotip of branch
shàoa whistle; sentry
shěto give up; to abandon; to give alms
shèto take in; to absorb; to assimilate; to act for; to take a photo; photo shoot; photo; to conserve (one's health)
shèsociety; group; club; agency; god of the soil (old)
shěnto examine; to investigate; carefully; to try (in court)
shènto seep; to ooze; to horrify
shèngflourishing; vigorous; magnificent; extensively; surname Sheng
shīto lose; to miss; to fail
shīteacher; master; expert; model; army division; (old) troops; to dispatch troops
shīto grant; to give; to bestow; to act; to carry out; surname Shi
shíreal; true; honest; really; solid; fruit; seed; definitely
shío'clock; time; when; hour; season; period; surname Shi
shíto know; knowledge; Taiwan pr. [shi4]
shíto eat; food; animal feed; eclipse
shǐhistory; annals; title of an official historian in ancient China; surname Shi
shǐto begin; to start; then; only then
shǐstool; feces; ear wax; nasal mucus
shìlife; age; generation; era; world; lifetime; epoch; descendant; noble; surname Shi
shìtype; form; pattern; style
shìto look at; to regard; to inspect
shòuto teach; to instruct; to award; to give
shǔcategory; genus (taxonomy); family members; dependents; to belong to; subordinate to; affiliated with; be born in the year of (one of the 12 animals); to be; to prove to be; to constitute
shùto erect; vertical; vertical stroke (in Chinese characters)
shuàihandsome; graceful; smart; commander in chief
to think; to consider
to seem; to appear; to resemble; similar; -like; pseudo-
buddhist temple; mosque; government office (old)
four (banker's anti-fraud numeral); market
sǒngto excite; to raise up; to shrug; high; lofty; towering
sōuto search
custom; convention; popular; common; coarse; vulgar; secular
raw silk; white; plain, unadorned; vegetarian (food); essence; nature; element; constituent; usually; always; ever
suàngarlic; CL:,
suìear of grain; fringe; tassel; abbr. for Guangzhou 广州
sǔnto decrease; to lose; to damage; to harm; to speak sarcastically or deride (topolect); mean or shabby (topolect); one of the 64 trigrams of the Book of Changes (old)
sǔnbamboo shoot
tānto have a voracious desire for; to covet; greedy; corrupt
tánearthen jar; altar
tándeep pool; pond; pit (topolect); depression; surname Tan
tánphlegm; spittle
tànsigh; gasp; exclaim
tànwood charcoal; coal; carbon
tángdyke; embankment; pool or pond; hot-water bathing pool
tǎoto invite; to provoke; to demand or ask for; to send armed forces to suppress; to denounce or condemn; to marry (a woman); to discuss or study
téngto soar; to gallop; to rise; to prance; to hover; to move out
téngrattan; cane; vine
body; form; style; system
shave; to weed; to shave
tiǎoto raise; to dig up; to poke; to prick; to incite; to stir up
tǐngvessel; small ship
tǒngto poke through
convex; to stick out; Taiwan pr. [tu2]
bald; blunt
túnto station (soldiers); to store up; village
tuǒsuitable; adequate; ready; settled
wānbay; gulf
wángto die; to lose; to be gone; to flee; deceased
wángking or monarch; best or strongest of its type; grand; great; surname Wang
wěitail; remainder; remnant; extremity; sixth of the 28 constellations; classifier for fish
wèito fear
wénlanguage; culture; writing; formal; literary; gentle; (old) classifier for coins; Kangxi radical 118; surname Wen
nest; pit or hollow on the human body; lair; den; place; to harbor or shelter; to hold in check; to bend; classifier for litters and broods
squad of five soldiers; to associate with; five (banker's anti-fraud numeral); surname Wu
to dance; to wield; to brandish
do not
to comprehend; to apprehend; to become aware
thing; object; matter; abbr. for physics 物理
ivulet; creek; rivulet
to extinguish; to put out (fire); to quench; to stop burning; to go out (of fire, lamp etc); to come to an end; to wither away; to die out
banquet; woven mat; seat; place in a democratic assembly; surname Xi
to be fond of; to like; to enjoy; to be happy; to feel pleased; happiness; delight; glad
xiáred clouds
xiánbow string; string of musical instrument; watchspring; chord (segment of curve); hypotenuse; CL:
xiánbit (of a bridle); to hold in the mouth; to harbor (feelings); to link; to accept; rank; title
xiǎnprominent; conspicuous; Greek stem: phanero-
xiànlimit; bound
xiāngto inlay; to embed; ridge; border
xiāoto disappear; to vanish; to eliminate; to spend (time); have to; need
xiāoto melt (metal); to cancel or annul; to sell; to spend; to fasten with a bolt; bolt or pin
xiédemonic; iniquitous; nefarious; evil; unhealthy influences that cause disease (Chinese medicine)
xièbits; fragments; crumbs; filings; trifling; trivial; to condescend to
xièto leak (of water or gas); to drip; to drain; to discharge; to leak out; to divulge (secrets); to give vent (to anger, spite etc); to disperse; to reduce
xièto flow out swiftly; to flood; a torrent; diarrhea; laxative
xīnzinc (chemistry)
xīngto rise; to flourish; to become popular; to start; to encourage; to get up; (often used in the negative) to permit or allow (topolect); maybe (topolect); surname Xing
xīngstar; satellite; small amount
xīngfishy (smell)
xíngpunishment; penalty; sentence; torture; corporal punishment; surname Xing
xíngmodel; type (e.g. blood type)
xíngto appear; to look; form; shape
xiōngelder brother
xióngbear; to scold; to rebuke; brilliant light; to shine brightly; surname Xiong
xiùto smell; to sniff; to nose
emptiness; void; abstract theory or guiding principles; empty or unoccupied; diffident or timid; false; humble or modest; (of health) weak; virtual; in vain
continue; replenish
to store up; to grow (eg a beard); to entertain (ideas)
xuánto revolve; a loop; a circle
xuécave; cavity; hole; acupuncture point; Taiwan pr. [xue4]
xūnto smoke; to fumigate; to assail the nostrils; to perfume
xùnexample; pattern; to teach; to train; instruction
xùnto question; to ask; to interrogate; rapid; speedy; fast; news; information
precipice; cliff; Taiwan pr. [yai2]
dumb; mute; hoarse; husky; unexploded (of artillery shell etc)
to crush; to knock sb down with a vehicle; surname Ya
yánwords; speech; to say; to talk
yǎnto cover up; to surprise
yànto examine; to test; to check
yángpositive (electric.); sun; male principle (Taoism); Yang, opposite:
yǎngoxygen (chemistry)
yǎngto itch; to tickle
yāoto invite; to request; to intercept; to solicit or seek
field; plain; open space; limit; boundary; rude; feral
liquid; fluid; Taiwan pr. [yi4]
to depend on; to comply with or listen to sb; according to; in the light of
medical; medicine; doctor; to cure; to treat
one (banker's anti-fraud numeral)
different; other; hetero-; unusual; strange; surprising; to distinguish; to separate; to discriminate
to recollect; to remember; memory
wing; area surrounding the bullseye of a target; to assist; one of the 28 constellations of Chinese astronomy; old variant of ; surname Yi; alternative name for capital of the Jin State during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-475 BC)
yīncause; reason; because
yǐnto drink
yīngeagle; falcon; hawk
yíngarmy; to deal in; to trade; to operate; to run; camp; nourishment; to manage
yìngreflect; shine
yōuexcellent; superior
yóuuranium (chemistry)
yòuto entice; to tempt
to give
to reside; to imply; to contain; residence
heal; the more...(the more...); to recover; to heal; better
to wish for; to desiredesire; appetite; passion; lust; greed
yuāninjustice; grievance; wrong
yuánformer; original; primary; raw; level; cause; source
yuánland used for growing plants; site used for public recreation; surname Yuan
yuánroot; source; origin
yuēto speak; to say
yuèto jump; to leap
yuèto inspect; ro review; to read; to peruse; to go through; to experience
yúneven; well-distributed; uniform; to distribute evenly; to share
zǎito slaughter livestock; to govern or rule; to cheat customers; Imperial official in dynastic China
zǎnto collect; to hoard; to accumulate; to save
zàntemporary; Taiwan pr. [zhan4]
zàngto bury (the dead); to inter
zǎojujube; dates
zàokitchen stove; furnace
zéithief; traitor; wily; deceitful; evil; extremely
zēngto increase; to expand; to add
zhágear; brake; sluice; lock (on waterway); electric switch or circuit breaker
zhǎto blink; to wink
zhàsalted vegetable; to extract
zhàistronghold; stockade; camp; village
zhǎnto behead (as form of capital punishment); to chop
zhànto fight; fight; war; battle
zhǎngpalm of the hand; sole of the foot; paw; horseshoe; to slap; to hold in one's hand; to wield
zhàoomen; to foretell; million; mega-; trillion; tera-; billion (old); surname Zhao
zhènto shake; to flap; to vibrate; to resonate; to rise up with spirit; to rouse oneself
zhēngto evaporate; (of cooking) to steam; torch made from hemp stalks or bamboo (old); finely chopped firewood (old)
zhèngisease; illness; disease
zhèngcertificate; proof; to prove; to demonstrate; to confirm
zhíto plant
zhìsign; mark; to record; write a footnote; aspiration; ambition; the will
zhìto toss; to throw dice; Taiwan pr. [zhi2]
zhìto install; to place; to put; to buy
zhōngend; finish
zhòngmany; numerous; crowd; multitude; abbr. for 众议院 House of Representatives
zhōuprefecture; state (e.g. of US); province (old); administrative division (old)
zhōucontinent; island
zhǔowner; master; host; individual or party concerned; God; Lord; main; to indicate or signify; trump card (in card games)
zhǔto lean on; to prop on
zhùto build; to construct; to ram; to hit; Taiwan pr. ; five-string lute; another word for Guiyang 贵阳, capital of Guizhou province 贵州
zhùto make known; to show; to prove; to write; book; outstanding
zhuàito pull; to tug at (sth)
zhuànbiography; historical narrative; commentaries; relay station
zhuāngfarmstead; village; manor; place of business; banker (in a gambling game); grave or solemn; holdings of a landlord in Imperial China; surname Zhuang; variant of
zhuóto peck
zhuóto wear (clothes); to contact; to use; to apply
zòuto play music; to achieve; to present a memorial to the emperor (old)
zòuto beat up; to break to pieces
race; nationality; ethnicity; clan; by extension, social group (e.g. office workers 上班族)
zūnsenior; of a senior generation; to honor; to respect; honorific; classifier for cannons and statues; ancient wine vessel